IMAM HASAN (A.S)
Imam Hasan (A.S) was the son of Imam Ali (A.S) and Bibi Fatimah (A.S), the daughter of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h). He was the second in the line of Imams that began from Imam Ali (A.S) (read last post for more). He was born in 3 A.H and after the death of both the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) and his mother (A.S), he was placed under the care of his father.
After the death of his father, Imam Hasan (A.S) became the Imam of the time. During this time, Mua’wiya, who had been a bitter enemy of Imam Ali’s (A.S), marched his army first into Iraq, and then with an open claim to the caliphate, on the pretext of avenging the death of the third caliph. After most of his generals and commanders betrayed him, giving in to empty promises of receiving large sums of money and power, Imam Hasan (A.S) was forced to give in to Mua’wiya’s demands provided that the followers of the Imam were not harmed in anyway and that the caliphate would return to Imam Hasan (A.S) after Mua’wiya’s death.
Mua’wiya, after acquiring the caliphate, declared all the conditions of peace void. During the ten years of Imam’s rule, his family and he lived a life of great hardship and persecution. In the year 50 A.H, he was poisoned by his wife, who had given in to greed and had come under Mua’wiya’s false promises.
Imam Hasan (A.S) was in every way like his father, and was the perfect example his noble grandfather. The sons of the first Imam and the Prophet’s daughter are said to have accompanied the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) everywhere throughout his lifetime. The Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) regarding the two subsequent Imams, is said to have told, “These two children of mine are Imams whether they stand up or sit down” (allusion to whether they occupy the external function of caliphate or not).
IMAM HUSSAIN (A.S)
Imam Hussain (A.S), the second son of Imam Ali (A.S) and Bibi Fatimah (A.S), was born in the 4th year of Hijrat. He became the Imam after his brother’s death, making him the third Imam. He came into power both through divine command and through the will of his brother.
Imam Hussain was Imam for a period of ten years, all but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Mua’wiya. Imam Hussain (A.S) lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power. Secondly, Mu’awiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside and move out of the way the Household of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and their followers, and thus obliterate the name of Ali and his family. And above all, Mu’awiya wanted to strengthen the basis of the caliphate of his son, Yazid, who because of his lack of principles and scruples was opposed by a large group of Muslims. Therefore, in order to quell all opposition, Mu’awiya had undertaken newer and more severe measures. By force and necessity Imam Hussain had to endure these days and to tolerate every kind of mental and spiritual agony and affliction from Mu’awiya and his aides,until in the middle of the year 60 A.H. Mu’awiya died and his son Yazid took his place.
TOMORROW: LEADING UP TO THE BATTLE.